Environmental Benefits of TVRC Technology – Part 3

Emissions, Medical Waste Treatment, PTDR Systems, Plasma Arcs, Plasma Gasification, TVRC Technology, Waste To Resources, Waste Treatment, medical waste No Comments »

All of the high temperature boiler/reactors – a key component of the TVRC technology –  installed and operating to date required an air permit from the applicable regulatory body. Typically, these systems are designed to comply with emissions levels for particulate matter (150 μg/m3), NOx (0.04 PPMV), SOx (0.03 PPMV) and carbon monoxide (9 PPMV), as well as the other typical reference pollutants as they pertain to air emissions.

Below is a summary of the most recent third party emissions testing conducted on a recently commissioned PTDR plasma-arc, plasma gasification. The test was conducted for medical waste treatment. The summary also compares the results to current United States air emission regulations.


(USEPA 23)


40 CFR Part 60

Standards of Performance for Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for New Sources: HMIWI

Taiwan – EPA

(Asia reference)


(corrected to 7% oxygen as per US EPA standards)

HCl 15 ppmv 40 ppmv N.D. (D.L. 1.5mg/m3)
Pb 1.2 mg/dscm 2 mg/dscm N.D. (D.L. 1μg/m3)
Cd 0.16 mg/dscm 0.3 mg/dscm 0.02488
Hg 0.55 mg/dscm 0.3 mg/dscm N.D. (D.L. 1μg/m3)
Particulate matter 69 mg/dscm 80 mg/dscm 30.86
Dioxins & Furans 2.3 ng TEQ/dscm 0.1 ng TEQ/dscm 0.057
NOX 250 ppmv 180 ppmv 80.26
SO2 55 ppmv 150 ppmv 10.14

The following parameters were also tested but were found to be non detectible (Detectible limit in parentheses) Chlorides as Cl (1.4 mg/m3), Ammonia (5 mg/m3), Hydrogen Sulfide (1.4 mg/m3). With regards to Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), the testing for Benzene, Ethyl Benzene, Toluene and Xylene were all below the detectible limit (1 mg/m3). Finally, with regards to heavy metals with the exception of cadmium, which is listed above, all were below the detectible limit of 1 μg/m3 (antimony had a detectible limit of 5 μg/m3).

It is worth noting that the above emissions for the PTDR plasma-arc, plasma gasification were measured when the energy recovery system (gas engine was not operating and thus the syngas was thermally oxidized. It is noted that if the syngas is utilized in a gas engine or other syngas utilization equipment, then the only gas emissions associated with the PTDR plasma-arc, plasma gasification system would be the exhaust from that source.

Environmental Benefits of TVRC Technology – Part 2

Emissions, Plasma Arcs, Plasma Gasification, TVRC Technology, Waste To Resources 1 Comment »

According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s “Solid Waste Management and Greenhouse Gases: A Lifecycle Assessment of Emissions and Sinks”, disposing of 650,000 tons per year in a landfill without gas collection, could reduce its Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions by about 260,000 Metric Tons Carbon Equivalent (MTCE) per year by managing waste in a mass burn combustor unit. For this preliminary discussion, this equates to 0.40 MTCE/ton avoided from landfilling.

However, the EPA’s document uses a combustion system efficiency of 550 kWh per ton of mixed MSW. The high temperature boiler/reactor system in the TVRC system, which combines a high temperature boiler/reactor with a plasma-arc, plasma gasification sytem, has an efficiency of approximately 690 kWh per ton – 25% greater efficiency; thus the high temperature boiler/reactor has the potential to generate approximately 0.50 MTCE/ton avoided from landfilling or in total up to 82,500 MTCE, when assuming 500 TPD.

Additionally, the EPA estimates greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions range from 10 to 20 million metric tons, depending on the different methods used to estimate the biogenic fraction of MSW. EPA’s eGrid (a database of information on electrical generators in the United States) indicates about 53% of the energy generated by MSW combustion facilities is from biogenic sources and 47% is fossil-fuel derived power. If we take that 53% and presume the same percent of GHG emissions are from biogenic sources, then MSW combustion facilities generate less GHGs than fossil-fuels.

Fuel CO2 (lbs per MWh)
MSW 1016
Coal 2249
Oil 1672
Natural Gas 1135

EPA estimates the GHG savings from WTE to be about 1 on of GHGs saved per ton of MSW combusted.

Environmental Benefits of TVRC Technology – Part 1

PTDR Systems, Plasma Arcs, Plasma Gasification, TVRC Technology, Waste To Energy, Waste To Resources No Comments »

Any fly ash generated in a Thermal Volume Recovery and Conversion System is converted on-site into a vitrified matrix product, thus converting an unusable by-product from the high temperature boiler/reactor system into a usable end-product.

As previously discussed in this blog section as well as on PEAT’s website, the vitrified matrix could be used in a variety of commercial applications including concrete aggregate, insulation, roadbed/fill construction and even in decorative and non-decorative tiles. Independent laboratory tests (i.e. “TCLP”) have proven that the vitrified matrix does not leach, is totally benign and safe for any re-utilization.

PEAT has conducted a range of testing on this material include Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) tests. A summary of the test results can be seen below when fly ash was processed:



( 40 CFR 261.24) Mg/l

Testing Result

Arsenic 5.0 N.D. (D.L 0.002 Mg/l)
Cadmium 1.0 N.D. (D.L 0.01 Mg/l)
Chromium 5.0 N.D. (D.L 0.01 Mg/l)
Lead 5.0 N.D. (D.L 0.01 Mg/l)
Mercury 0.2 N.D. (D.L 0.002 Mg/l)

The most recent TCLP results on the vitrified matrix from PEAT’s plasma-arc plasma gasification PTDR system previously located at a China refinery is presented in the below table.

Contaminant USA – EPA
(40 CFR 261.24)
Regulatory Level
China EPA
Regulatory Level
China Refinery
Vitrified Matrix
Arsenic 5 5 ND < 0.050
Barium 100 100 0.371
Cadmium 1 1 ND < 0.008
Chromium 5 5 ND < 0.017
Copper 15 8.7
Hexavalent Chromium 2.5 ND < 0.25
Lead 5 5 ND < 0.018
Mercury 0.2 0.2 ND < 0.0005
Nickle 0.441
Selenium 1 1 ND < 0.041
Silver 5 5 ND < 0.013
Zinc 1.22
ND = Not Detectable (detectable limit follows)
NR = Not reported
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